6. Types of symbology
6.1 OneDimensional symbols
OneDimensional symbols are what most people associate with the term barcode.
They consist of a number of bars and a number of spaces of differing widths.
6.1.1 Code 11
Developed by Intermec in 1977, Code 11 is similar to Code 2 of 5 Matrix and
is primarily used in telecommunications. The symbol can encode any length string
consisting of the digits 09 and the dash character (). One modulo11 check
digit is calculated.
6.1.2 Code 2 of 5
Code 2 of 5 is a family of onedimensional symbols, 8 of which are supported
by Zint. Note that the names given to these standards alters from one source to
another so you should take care to ensure that you have the right barcode type
before using these standards.
6.1.2.1 Standard Code 2 of 5
Also known as Code 2 of 5 Matrix is a selfchecking code used in industrial
applications and photo development. Standard Code 2 of 5 will encode any length
numeric input (digits 09).
6.1.2.2 IATA Code 2 of 5
Used for baggage handling in the airtransport industry by the International
Air Transport Agency, this selfchecking code will encode any length numeric
input (digits 09) and does not include a check digit.
6.1.2.3 Industrial Code 2 of 5
Industrial Code 2 of 5 can encode any length numeric input (digits 09) and
does not include a check digit.
6.1.2.4 Interleaved Code 2 of 5
This selfchecking symbology encodes pairs of numbers, and so can only encode
an even number of digits (09). If an odd number of digits is entered a leading
zero is added by Zint. No check digit is added.
6.1.2.5 Code 2 of 5 Data Logic
Data Logic does not include a check digit and can encode any length numeric
input (digits 09).
6.1.2.6 ITF14
ITF14, also known as UPC Shipping Container symbol or Case Code is based on
Interleaved Code 2 of 5 and requires a 13 digit numeric input (digits 09). One
modulo10 check digit is added by Zint.
6.1.2.7 Deutsche Post Leitcode
Leitcode is based on Interleaved Code 2 of 5 and is used by Deutsche Post for
mailing purposes. Leitcode requires a 13digit numerical input and includes a
check digit.
6.1.2.8 Deutsche Post Identcode
Identcode is based on Interleaved Code 2 of 5 and is used by Deutsche Post
for mailing purposes. Identcode requires an 11digit numerical input and
includes a check digit.
6.1.3 Universal Product Code (EN 797)
6.1.3.1 UPC Version A
UPCA is used in the United States for retail applications. The symbol
requires an 11 digit article number. The check digit is calculated by Zint. In
addition EAN2 and EAN5 addon symbols can be added using the + character. For
example, to draw a UPCA symbol with the data 72527270270 with an EAN5 addon
showing the data 12345 use the command:
zint barcode=34 d 72527270270+12345
or encode a data string with the + character included:
my_symbol>symbology = BARCODE_UPCA;
error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol,
"72527270270+12345");
If your input data already includes the check digit symbology 35 can be used
which takes a 12 digit input and validates the check digit before encoding.
6.1.3.2 UPC Version E
UPCE is a zerocompressed version of UPCA developed for smaller packages.
The code requires a 6 digit article number (digits 09). The check digit is
calculated by Zint. EAN2 and EAN5 addon symbols can be added using the +
character as with UPCA. In addition Zint also supports Number System 1 encoding
by entering a 7digit article number stating with the digit 1. For example:
zint barcode=37 d 1123456
or
my_symbol>symbology = BARCODE_UPCE;
error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "1123456");
If your input data already includes the check digit symbology 38 can be used
which takes a 7 or 8 digit input and validates the check digit before encoding.
6.1.4 European Article Number (EN 797)
6.1.4.1 EAN2, EAN5, EAN8 and EAN13
The EAN system is used in retail across Europe and includes standards for
EAN2 and EAN5 addon codes, EAN8 and EAN13 which encode 2, 5, 7 or 12 digit
numbers respectively. Zint will decide which symbology to use depending on the
length of the input data. In addition EAN2 and EAN5 addon symbols can be
added using the + symbol as with UPC symbols. For example:
zint barcode=13 d 54321
will encode a standalone EAN5, whereas
zint barcode=13 d 7432365+54321
will encode an EAN8 symbol with an EAN5 addon. As before these results can
be achieved using the API:
my_symbol>symbology = BARCODE_EANX;
error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "54321");
error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol,
"7432365+54321");
All of the EAN symbols include check digits which is added by Zint.
If you are encoding an EAN8 or EAN13 symbol and your data already includes
the check digit then you can use symbology 14 which takes an 8 or 13 digit input
and validates the check digit before encoding.
6.1.4.2 SBN, ISBN and ISBN13
EAN13 symbols (also known as bookland EAN13) can also be produced from
9digit SBN, 10digit ISBN or 13digit ISBN13 data. The relevant check digit
needs to be present in the input data and will be verified before the symbol is
generated. In addition EAN2 and EAN5 addon symbols can be added using the +
symbol as with UPC symbols.
6.1.5 Plessey
Also known as Plessey Code, this symbology was developed by the Plessey
Company Ltd. in the UK. The symbol can encode any length data consisting of
digits (09) or letters AF and includes a CRC check digit.
6.1.6 MSI Plessey
Based on Plessey and developed by MSE Data Corporation, MSI Plessey is
available with a range of check digit options available by setting option_2 or
by using the ver= switch. Any length numeric
(digits 09) input can be encoded. The table below shows the options
available:
Value of option_2

Check Digits

0

None

1

Modulo10

2

Modulo10 & Modulo10

3

Modulo11

4

Modulo11 & Modulo10

6.1.7 Telepen
6.1.7.1 Telepen Alpha
Telepen Alpha was developed by SB Electronic Systems Limited and can encode
any length of ASCII text input. Telepen includes a modulo127 check digit.
6.1.7.2 Telepen Numeric
Telepen Numeric allows compression of numeric data into a Telepen symbol.
Data can consist of pairs of numbers or pairs consisting of a numerical digit
followed an X character. For example: 466333 and 466X33 are valid codes whereas
46X333 is not (the digit pair "X3" is not valid). Telepen Numeric includes a
modulo127 check digit which is added by Zint.
6.1.8 Code 39
6.1.8.1 Standard Code 39 (ISO 16388)
Standard Code 39 was developed in 1974 by Intermec. Input data can be of any
length and can include the characters 09, AZ, dash (), full stop (.), space,
asterisk (*), dollar ($), slash (/), plus (+) and percent (%). The standard does
not require a check digit but a modulo43 check digit can be added if required
by setting option_2 = 1 or using ver=1.
6.1.8.2 Extended Code 39
Also known as Code 39e and Code39+, this symbology expands on Standard Code
39 to provide support to the full ASCII character set. The standard does not
require a check digit but a modulo43 check digit can be added if required by
setting option_2 = 1 or using ver=1.
6.1.8.3 Code 93
A variation of Extended Code 39, Code 93 also supports full ASCII text. Two
check digits are added by Zint.
6.1.8.4 Pharmazentralnummer (PZN)
Pharmazentralnummer is a Code 39 based symbology used by the pharmaceutical industry in
Germany. Pharmazentralnummer encodes a 6 digit number to which Zint will add a modulo10 check digit.
6.1.8.5 LOGMARS
LOGMARS (Logistics Applications of Automated Marking and Reading symbols) is
a variation of the Code 39 symbology used by the US Department of Defence.
LOGMARS encodes the same character set as Standard Code 39 and adds a modulo43
check digit.
6.1.8.6 Code 32
A variation of Code 39 used by the Italian Ministry of Health ("Ministero
della SanitÃ ") for encoding identifiers on pharmaceutical products. This symbology
requires a numeric input up to 8 digits in length. A check digit is added by Zint.
6.1.8.7 HIBC Code 39
This option adds a leading '+' character and a trailing modulo49 check digit
to a standard Code 39 symbol as required by the Health Industry Barcode
standards.
6.1.8.8 Vehicle Identification Number
This option includes a verification stage for vehicle identification numbers
used in North America which include a check digit. For European vehicle
identification numbers use Standard Code 39.
6.1.9 Codabar (EN 798)
Also known as NW7, Monarch, ABC Codabar, USD4, Ames Code and Code 27, this
symbology was developed in 1972 by Monarch Marketing Systems for retail
purposes. The American Blood Commission adopted Codabar in 1977 as the standard
symbology for blood identification. Codabar can encode any length string
starting and ending with the letters AD and containing between these letters
the numbers 09, dash (), dollar ($), colon (:), slash (/), full stop (.) or
plus (+). No check digit is generated.
6.1.10 Pharmacode
Developed by Laetus, Pharmacode is used for the identification of
pharmaceuticals. The symbology is able to encode whole numbers between 3 and
131070.
6.1.11 Code 128
6.1.11.1 Standard Code 128 (ISO 15417)
One of the most ubiquitous onedimensional barcode symbologies, Code 128 was
developed in 1981 by Computer Identics. This symbology supports full ASCII text
and uses a threemode system to compress the data into a smaller symbol. Zint
automatically switches between modes and adds a modulo103 check digit. Code 128
is the default barcode symbology used by Zint. In addition Zint supports the
encoding of Latin1 (nonEnglish) characters in Code 128 symbols [1]. The
Latin1 character set is shown in Appendix A.
6.1.11.2 Code 128 Subset B
It is sometimes advantageous to stop Code 128 from using subset mode C which
compresses numerical data. The BARCODE_CODE128B option (symbology 60)
suppresses mode C in favour of mode B.
6.1.11.3 GS1128
A variation of Code 128 also known as UCC/EAN128, this symbology is defined
by the GS1 General Specification. Application Identifiers (AIs) should be
entered using [square bracket] notation. These will be converted to (round
brackets) for the human readable text. This will allow round brackets to be used
in the data strings to be encoded. Fixed length data should be entered at the
appropriate length for correct encoding. GS1128 does not
support extended ASCII characters. Check digits for GTIN data (AI 01) are not
generated and need to be included in the input data. The following is an example of
a valid GS1128 input:
zint barcode=16 d
"[01]98898765432106[3202]012345[15]991231"
6.1.11.4 EAN14
A shorter version of GS1128 which encodes GTIN data only. A 13 digit number
is required. The GTIN check digit and AI (01) are added by Zint.
6.1.11.5 NVE18
A variation of Code 128 the "Nummer der Versandeinheit" standard includes both
modulo10 and modulo103 check digits. NVE18 requires a 17 digit numerical
input and check digits are added by Zint.
6.1.11.6 HIBC Code 128
This option adds a leading '+' character and a trailing modulo49 check digit
to a standard Code 128 symbol as required by the Health Industry Barcode
standards.
6.1.12 GS1 DataBar (ISO 24724)
Also known as RSS (Reduced Spaced symbology) these symbols are due to replace
GS1128 symbols in accordance with the GS1 General Specification. If a GS1
DataBar symbol is to be printed with a 2D component as specified in ISO 24723
set
option_1 = 2
or use the option mode=2
at the command prompt. See section
6.3 of this manual to find out how to generate DataBar symbols with 2D components.
6.1.12.1 DataBar14 and DataBar14 Truncated
Also known as RSS14 this standard encodes a 13 digit item code. A check
digit and application identifier of (01) are added by Zint. To produce a truncated
symbol set the symbol height to a value between 32 and 13. Normal DataBar14
symbols should have a height of 33 or greater.
6.1.12.2 DataBar Limited
Also known as RSS Limited this standard encodes a 13 digit item code and can
be used in the same way as DataBar14 above. DataBar Limited, however, is
limited to data starting with digits 0 and 1 (i.e. numbers in the range 0 to
1999999999999). As with DataBar14 a check digit and application identifier of
(01) are added by Zint.
6.1.12.3 DataBar Expanded
Also known as RSS Expanded this is a variable length symbology capable of
encoding data from a number of AIs in a single symbol. AIs should be encased in
[square brackets] in the input data. This will be converted to (rounded
brackets) before it is included in the human readable text attached to the
symbol. This method allows the inclusion of rounded brackets in the data to be
encoded. GTIN data (AI 01) should also include the check digit data as this is
not calculated by Zint when this symbology is encoded. Fixed length data should be entered at the appropriate
length for correct encoding. The following is an example of a valid DataBar Expanded input
zint barcode=31 d
"[01]98898765432106[3202]012345[15]991231"
6.1.13 Korea Post Barcode
The Korean Postal Barcode is used to encode a sixdigit number and includes
one check digit.
6.1.14 Channel Code
A highly compressed symbol for numeric data. The number of channels in the
symbol can be between 3 and 8 and this can be specified by setting the value of
option_2. It can also be determined by the length
of the input data e.g. a three character input string generates a 4 channel code
by default. The maximum values permitted depend on the number of channels used
as shown in the table below:
Channels

Minimum Value

Maximum Value

3

00

26

4

000

292

5

0000

3493

6

00000

44072

7

000000

576688

8

0000000

7742862

Note that 7 and 8 channel codes require a processor intensive algorithm to
generate and so response times when generating these codes will be relatively
slow.
6.2 Stacked symbologies
6.2.1 Basic symbol Stacking
An early innovation to get more information into a symbol, used primarily in
the vehicle industry, is to simply stack onedimensional codes on top of each
other. This can be achieved at the command prompt by giving more than one set of
input data. For example
zint d 'This' d 'That'
will draw two Code 128 symbols, one on top of the other. The same result can
be achieved using the API by executing the ZBarcode_Encode() function more than once on a symbol.
For example:
my_symbol>symbology = BARCODE_CODE128;
error = ZBarcode_Encode(my_symbol, "This");
error = ZBarcode_Encode(my_symbol, "That");
error = ZBarcode_Print(my_symbol);
The example below shows 5 EAN13 symbols stacked in this way.
more sophisticated method is to use some type of line indexing which
indicates to the barcode reader which order the symbols should be read. This is
demonstrated by the symbologies below.
6.2.2 CodablockF
This is a stacked symbology based on Code 128 which can encode ASCII code set
data up to a maximum length of 2725 characters. The width of the CodablockF
symbol can be set using the cols= option at the command line or option_2.
Alternatively the height (number of rows) can be set using the rows= option
at the command line or by setting option_1. Zint does not support encoding of
GS1 data in CodablockF symbols.
6.2.3 Code 16k (EN 12323)
Code 16k uses a Code 128 based system which can stack up to
16 rows in a block. This gives a maximum data capacity of 77 characters or 154
numerical digits and includes two modulo107 check digits. Code 16k also
supports extended ASCII character encoding in the same manner as Code 128.
6.2.4 PDF417 (ISO 15438)
Heavily used in the parcel industry, the PDF417 symbology can encode a vast
amount of data into a small space. Zint supports encoding up to the ISO standard
maximum symbol size of 925 codewords which (at error correction level 0) allows
a maximum data size of 1850 text characters, or 2710 digits. The width of the
generated PDF417 symbol can be specified at the command line using the cols switch followed by a number between 1 and 30, and
the amount of check digit information can be specified by using the security
switch followed by a number between 0 and 8 where the number of codewords used
for check information is determined by 2^{(value + 1)}. If using the API
these values are assigned to option_2 and option_1 respectively. The default level of check
information is determined by the amount of data being encoded.This symbology uses Latin1 character encoding by default but also supports the ECI encoding mechanism.
A separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data
which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo49 check digit to the encoded
data.
6.2.5 Compact PDF417
Also known as truncated PDF417. Options are the same as for PDF417 aboxve.
6.2.6 MicroPDF417 (ISO 24728)
A variation of the PDF417 standard, MicroPDF417 is intended for applications
where symbol size needs to be kept to a minimum. 34 predefined symbol sizes are
available with 1  4 columns and 4  44 rows. The maximum size MicroPDF417
symbol can hold 250 alphanumeric characters or 366 digits. The amount of error
correction used is dependent on symbol size. The number of columns used can be
determined using the cols switch or option_2 as with PDF417.
This symbology uses Latin1 character encoding by default but also supports the ECI encoding mechanism. A separate symbology ID can be
used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+'
character and a modulo49 check digit to the encoded data.
6.2.7 GS1 DataBar14 Stacked (ISO 24724)
A stacked variation of the GS1 DataBar14 symbol requiring the same input
(see section 6.1.12.1). The height of this symbol is fixed. The data is encoded
in two rows of bars with a central finder pattern. This symbol can be generated
with a twodimensional component to make a composite symbol.
6.2.8 GS1 DataBar14 Stacked Omnidirectional (ISO 24724)
Another variation of the GS1 DataBar14 symbol requiring the same input (see
section 6.1.12.1). The data is encoded in two rows of bars with a central finder
pattern. This symbol can be generated with a twodimensional component to make a
composite symbol.
6.2.9 GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked (ISO 24724)
A stacked variation of the GS1 DataBar Expanded symbol for smaller packages.
Input is the same as for GS1 DataBar Expanded (see section 6.1.12.3). In
addition the width of the symbol can be altered using the cols switch or option_2.
In this case the number of columns relates to the number of character pairs on each row of the symbol. This symbol can be generated with a two
dimensional component to make a composite symbol. For symbols with a 2D component
the number of columns must be at least 2.
6.2.10 Code 49
Developed in 1987 at Intermec, Code 49 is a cross between UPC and Code 39. It
it one of the earliest stacked symbologies and influenced the design of Code 16K
a few years later. It supports full 7bit ASCII input up to a maximum of 49
characters or 81 numeric digits. GS1 data encoding is also supported.
6.3 Composite symbols (ISO 24723)
Composite symbols employ a mixture of components to give more comprehensive
information aboxut a product. The permissible contents of a composite symbol is
determined by the terms of the GS1 General Specification. Composite symbols
consist of a linear component which can be an EAN, UPC, GS1128 or GS1 DataBar
symbol, a 2D component which is based on PDF417 or MicroPDF417, and a separator
pattern. The type of linear component to be used is determined using the b or barcode= switch or
by adjusting symbol>symbology as with other encoding methods. Valid values
are shown below.
Numeric Value

Name

symbology

130

BARCODE_EANX_CC

Composite symbol with EAN linear component

131

BARCODE_EAN128_CC

Composite symbol with GS1128 linear component

132

BARCODE_RSS14_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar14 linear component

133

BARCODE_RSS_LTD_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar Limited component

134

BARCODE_RSS_EXP_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar Extended component

135

BARCODE_UPCA_CC

Composite symbol with UPC A linear component

136

BARCODE_UPCE_CC

Composite symbol with UPC E linear component

137

BARCODE_RSS14STACK_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar14 Stacked component

138

BARCODE_RSS14_OMNI_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar14 Stacked Omnidirectional
component

139

BARCODE_RSS_EXPSTACK_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked
component

The data to be encoded in the linear component of a composite symbol should
be entered into a primary string with the data for the 2D component being
entered in the normal way. To do this at the command prompt use the primary=
command. For example:
zint b 130 mode=1 primary=331234567890 d
"[99]1234abcd"
This creates an EAN13 linear component with the data "331234567890" and a 2D
CCA (see below) component with the data "(99)1234abcd". The same results can
be achieved using the API as shown below:
my_symbol>symbology = 130;
my_symbol>option_1 = 1;
strcpy(my_symbol>primary, "331234567890");
ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "[99]1234abcd");
EAN2 and EAN5 addon data can be used with EAN and UPC symbols using the +
symbol as described in section 6.1.3 and 5.1.4.
The 2D component of a composite symbol can use one of three systems: CCA,
CCB and CCC as described below. The 2D component type can be selected
automatically by Zint dependant on the length of the input string. Alternatively
the three methods can be accessed using the mode= prompt followed by 1, 2 or 3 for CCA, CCB
or CCC respectively, or by using the option_1 variable as shown above.
6.3.1 CCA
This system uses a variation of MicroPDF417 which is optimised to fit into a
small space. The size of the 2D component and the amount of error correction is
determined by the amount of data to be encoded and the type of linear component
which is being used. CCA can encode up to 56 numeric digits or an alphanumeric
string of shorter length. To select CCA use mode=1.
6.3.2 CCB
This system uses MicroPDF417 to encode the 2D component. The size of the 2D
component and the amount of error correction is determined by the amount of data
to be encoded and the type of linear component which is being used. CCB can
encode up to 338 numeric digits or an alphanumeric string of shorter length. To
select CCB use mode=2.
6.3.3 CCC
This system uses PDF417 and can only be used in conjunction with a GS1128
linear component. CCC can encode up to 2361 numeric digits or an alphanumeric
string of shorter length. To select CCC use mode=3.
6.4 TwoTrack symbols
6.4.1 TwoTrack Pharmacode
Developed by Laetus, Pharmacode TwoTrack is an alternative system to
Pharmacode OneTrack used for the identification of pharmaceuticals. The
symbology is able to encode whole numbers between 4 and 64570080.
6.4.2 PostNet
Used by the United States Postal Service until 2009, the PostNet barcode was
used for encoding zipcodes on mail items. PostNet uses numerical input data and
includes a modulo10 check digit. While Zint will encode PostNet symbols of any
length, standard lengths as used by USPS were PostNet6 (5 digits ZIP input),
PostNet10 (5 digit ZIP + 4 digit user data) and PostNet12 (5 digit ZIP + 6 digit
user data).
6.4.3 PLANET
Used by the United States Postal Service until 2009, the PLANET (Postal Alpha
Numeric Encoding Technique) barcode was used for encoding routing data on mail
items. PLANET uses numerical input data and includes a modulo10 check digit.
While Zint will encode PLANET symbols of any length, standard lengths used by
USPS were Planet12 (11 digit input) and Planet14 (13 digit input).
6.5 4State Postal Codes
6.5.1 Australia Post 4State symbols
6.5.1.1 Customer Barcodes
Australia Post Standard Customer Barcode, Customer Barcode 2 and Customer
Barcode 3 are 37bar, 52bar and 67bar specifications respectively, developed
by Australia Post for printing Delivery Point ID (DPID) and customer information
on mail items. Valid data characters are 09, AZ, az, space and hash (#). A
Format Control Code (FCC) is added by Zint and should not be included in the
input data. ReedSolomon error correction data is generated by Zint. Encoding
behaviour is determined by the length of the input data according to the formula
shown in the following table:
Input Length

Required Input Format

symbol Length

FCC

Encoding Table

8

99999999

37bar

11

None

13

99999999AAAAA

52bar

59

C

16

9999999999999999

52bar

59

N

18

99999999AAAAAAAAAA

67bar

62

C

23

99999999999999999999999

67bar

62

N

6.5.1.2 Reply Paid Barcode
A Reply Paid version of the Australia Post 4State Barcode (FCC 45) which
requires an 8digit DPID input.
6.5.1.3 Routing Barcode
A Routing version of the Australia Post 4State Barcode (FCC 87) which
requires an 8digit DPID input.
6.5.1.4 Redirect Barcode
A Redirection version of the Australia Post 4State Barcode (FCC 92) which
requires an 8digit DPID input.
6.5.2 Dutch Post KIX Code
This symbology is used by Royal Dutch TPG Post (Netherlands) for Postal code
and automatic mail sorting. Data input can consist of numbers 09 and letters
AZ and needs to be 11 characters in length. No check digit is included.
6.5.3 Royal Mail 4State Customer Code (RM4SCC)
The RM4SCC standard is used by the Royal Mail in the UK to encode postcode
and customer data on mail items. Data input can consist of numbers 09 and
letters AZ and usually includes delivery postcode followed by house number. For
example "W1J0TR01" for 1 Picadilly Circus in London. Check digit data is
generated by Zint.
6.5.4 Royal Mail 4State Mailmark
Developed in 2014 as a replacement for RM4SCC this 4state symbol includes
Reed Solomon error correction. Input is a preformatted alpanumeric string of
22 (for Barcode C) or 26 (for Barcode L) characters, producing a symbol with
66 or 78 bars respectively.
6.5.5 USPS OneCode
Also known as the Intelligent Mail Barcode and used in the US by the United
States Postal Service (USPS), the OneCode system replaced the PostNet and PLANET
symbologies in 2009. OneCode is a fixed length (65bar) symbol which combines
routing and customer information in a single symbol. Input data consists of a 20
digit tracking code, followed by a dash (), followed by a delivery point
zipcode which can be 0, 5, 9 or 11 digits in length. For example all of the
following inputs are valid data entries:
"01234567094987654321"
"0123456709498765432101234"
"01234567094987654321012345678"
"0123456709498765432101234567891"
6.5.6 Japanese Postal Code
Used for address data on mail items for Japan Post. Accepted values are 09,
AZ and Dash (). A modulo 19 check digit is added by Zint.
6.6 TwoDimensional symbols
6.6.1 Data Matrix (ISO 16022)
Also known as Semacode this symbology was developed in 1989 by Acuity
CiMatrix in partnership with the US DoD and NASA. The symbol can encode a large
amount of data in a small area. Data Matrix can encode characters in the Latin1 set by default but also supports
encoding using other character sets using the ECI mechanism. It can also encode GS1 data. The size of the generated symbol can
also be adjusted using the vers= option or by
setting option_2 as shown in the table below. A
separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data
which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo49 check digit to the encoded
data. Note that only ECC200 encoding is supported, the older standards have now
been removed from Zint.
Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

1

10 x 10

16

64 x 64

2

12 x 12

17

72 x 72

3

14 x 14

18

80 x 80

4

16 x 16

19

88 x 88

5

18 x 18

20

96 x 96

6

20 x 20

21

104 x 104

7

22 x 22

22

120 x 120

8

24 x 24

23

132 x 132

9

26 x 26

24

144 x 144

10

32 x 32

25

8 x 18

11

36 x 36

26

8 x 32

12

40 x 40

27

12 x 26

13

44 x 44

28

12 x 36

14

48 x 48

29

16 x 36

15

52 x 52

30

16 x 48

When using automatic symbol sizes you can force Zint to use square symbols
(versions 124) at the command line by using the option square and when
using the API by setting the value option_3 = DM_SQUARE.
Data Matrix Rectangular Extension (DMRE) codes, as defined in ISO/IEC 21471, may be generated with the following values as before.
Input

symbol Size

31

8 x 48

32

8 x 64

33

8 x 80

34

8 x 96

35

8 x 120

36

8 x 144

37

12 x 64

38

12 x 88

39

16 x 64

40

20 x 36

41

20 x 44

42

20 x 64

43

22 x 48

44

24 x 48

45

24 x 64

46

26 x 40

47

26 x 48

48

26 x 64

DMRE symbol sizes may be activated in automatic mode using the option dmre or by
the API option_3 = DM_DMRE
GS1 symbology may use FNC1 (prefered) or GS as separator.
Use the option gssep
to change to GS or use the API
output_options+=GS1_GS_SEPARATOR
6.6.2 QR Code (ISO 18004)
Also known as Quick Response Code this symbology was developed by Denso. Four
levels of error correction are available using the secure= option or setting option_1 as shown in the following table.
Input

ECC Level

Error Correction Capacity

Recovery Capacity

1

L (default)

Approx 20% of symbol

Approx 7%

2

M

Approx 37% of symbol

Approx 15%

3

Q

Approx 55% of symbol

Approx 25%

4

H

Approx 65% of symbol

Approx 30%

The size of the symbol can be set by using the vers= option or by setting option_2 to the QR Code version required (140). The size
of symbol generated is shown in the table below.
Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

1

21 x 21

21

101 x 101

2

25 x 25

22

105 x 105

3

29 x 29

23

109 x 109

4

33 x 33

24

113 x 113

5

37 x 37

25

117 x 117

6

41 x 41

26

121 x 121

7

45 x 45

27

125 x 125

8

49 x 49

28

129 x 129

9

53 x 53

29

133 x 133

10

57 x 57

30

137 x 137

11

61 x 61

31

141 x 141

12

65 x 65

32

145 x 145

13

69 x 69

33

149 x 149

14

73 x 73

34

153 x 153

15

77 x 77

35

157 x 157

16

81 x 81

36

161 x 161

17

85 x 85

37

165 x 165

18

89 x 89

38

169 x 169

19

93 x 93

39

173 x 173

20

97 x 97

40

177 x 177

The maximum capacity of a (version 40) QR Code symbol is 7089 numeric digits,
4296 alphanumeric characters or 2953 bytes of data. QR Code symbols can also be used
to encode GS1 data. QR Code symbols can by default encode characters in the Latin1 set
and Kanji characters which are members of the ShiftJIS encoding scheme. In addition QR
Code supports using other character sets using the ECI mechanism. Input should usually be entered as Unicode (UTF8) with
conversion to ShiftJIS being carried out by Zint. A separate symbology ID can
be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+'
character and a modulo49 check digit to the encoded data.
NonASCII data density may be maximized by using the fullmultibyte switch or by setting option_3 to ZINT_FULL_MULTIBYTE, but check that your barcode reader supports this before using.
6.6.3 Micro QR Code (ISO 18004)
A miniature version of the QR Code symbol for short messages. ECC levels can
be selected as for QR Code (aboxve). QR Code symbols can encode characters in the
Latin1 set and Kanji characters which are members of the ShiftJIS encoding
scheme. Input should be entered as a UTF8 stream with conversion to ShiftJIS
being carried out automatically by Zint. A preferred symbol size can be selected
by using the vers= option or by setting option_2 although the actual version used by Zint may be
different if required by the input data. The table below shows the possible
sizes:
Input

Version

symbol Size

1

M1

11 x 11

2

M2

13 x 13

3

M3

15 x 15

4

M4

17 x 17

For barcode readers that support it, nonASCII data density may be maximized by using the fullmultibyte switch or by setting option_3 to ZINT_FULL_MULTIBYTE.
6.6.4 Rectangular Micro QR Code (rMQR)
A rectangular version of QR Code. Like QR code rMQR supports encoding of
GS1 data, Latin1 and Kanji characters in the ShiftJIS encoding scheme.
It does not support other ISO 8859 character sets or Unicode. As with other
symbologies data should be entered as UTF8 with the conversion to ShiftJIS
being handled by Zint. The amount of ECC codewords can be adjusted using
secure=
, however only ECC levels M and H are valid for this type of symbol.
Input

ECC Level

Error Correction Capacity

Recovery Capacity

2

M

Approx 37% of symbol

Approx 15%

4

H

Approx 65% of symbol

Approx 30%

The preferred symbol sizes can be selected using the vers= option as shown
in the table below. Input values between 33 and 38 fix the height of the
symbol while allowing Zint to determine the minimum symbol width.
Input

Version

Symbol Size

1

R7 x 43

7 x 43

2

R7 x 59

7 x 59

3

R7 x 77

7 x 77

4

R7 x 99

7 x 99

5

R7 x 139

7 x 139

6

R9 x 43

9 x 43

7

R9 x 59

9 x 59

8

R9 x 77

9 x 77

9

R9 x 99

9 x 99

10

R9 x 139

9 x 139

11

R11 x 27

11 x 27

12

R11 x 43

11 x 43

13

R11 x 59

11 x 59

14

R11 x 77

11 x 77

15

R11 x 99

11 x 99

16

R11 x 139

11 x 139

17

R13 x 27

13 x 27

18

R13 x 43

13 x 43

19

R13 x 59

13 x 59

20

R13 x 77

13 x 77

21

R13 x 99

13 x 99

22

R13 x 139

13 x 139

23

R17 x 43

15 x 43

24

R15 x 59

15 x 59

25

R15 x 77

15 x 77

26

R15 x 99

15 x 99

27

R15 x 139

15 x 139

28

R17 x 43

17 x 43

29

R17 x 59

17 x 59

30

R17 x 77

17 x 77

31

R17 x 99

17 x 99

32

R17 x 139

17 x 139

33

Fixed height 7

34

Fixed height 9

35

Fixed height 11

36

Fixed height 13

37

Fixed height 15

38

Fixed height 17

For barcode readers that support it, nonASCII data density may be maximized by using the fullmultibyte switch or by setting option_3 to ZINT_FULL_MULTIBYTE.
6.6.5 UPNQR  Univerzalni Plačilni Nalog QR
A variation of QR code used Združenje Bank Slovenije (Bank Association of Slovenia).
The size, error correction level and ECI are set by Zint and do not need to be specified.
UPNQR is unusual in that it uses ISO88592 formatted data. Zint will accept UTF8
data and convert it to ISO88592, or if your data is already ISO88592 formatted use the
binary switch or if using the API set
my_symbol>input_mode=DATA_MODE;
The following example creates a symbol from data saved in an ISO88592 file:
zint o UPNQR.png b 143 border=5 scale=3 binary i ./upn.txt
6.6.6 Maxicode (ISO 16023)
Developed by UPS the Maxicode symbology employs a grid of hexagons
surrounding a 'bullseye' finder pattern. This symbology is designed for the
identification of parcels. Maxicode symbols can be encoded in one of five modes.
In modes 2 and 3 Maxicode symbols are composed of two parts named the primary
and secondary messages. The primary message consists of a structured data field
which includes various data about the package being sent and the secondary
message usually consists of address data in a data structure. The format of the
primary message required by Zint is given in the following table:
Characters

Meaning

19

Postcode data which can consist of up to 9 digits (for mode 2) or up to
6 alphanumeric characters (for mode 3). Remaining unused characters should
be filled with the SPACE character (ASCII 32).

1012

Three digit country code according to ISO 3166.

1315

Three digit service code. This depends on your parcel
courier.

The primary message can be set at the command prompt using the
primary=
switch.
The secondary message uses the normal data entry method. For example:
zint o test.eps b 57 primary='999999999840012' d
'Secondary Message Here'
When using the API the primary message must be placed in the symbol>primary
string. The secondary is entered in the same way as described in section 5.2.
When either of these modes is selected Zint will analyse the primary message and
select either mode 2 or mode 3 as appropriate.
Modes 4 to 6 can be accessed using the mode=
switch or by setting option_1. Modes 4 to 6 do not
require a primary message. For example:
zint o test.eps b 57 mode=4 d 'A MaxiCode Message in
Mode 4'
Mode 6 is reserved for the maintenance of scanner hardware and should not be
used to encode user data.
This symbology uses Latin1 character encoding by default but also supports the ECI encoding mechanism.
The maximum length of text which can be placed in a Maxicode symbol depends on the
type of characters used in the text.
Example maximum data lengths are given in the table below:
Mode

Maximum Data Length for Capital Letters

Maximum Data Length for Numeric Digits

Number of Error Correction Codewords

2 (secondary only)

84

126

50

3 (secondary only)

84

126

50

4

93

135

50

5

77

110

66

6

93

135

50

6.6.7 Aztec Code (ISO 24778)
Invented by Andrew Longacre at Welch Allyn Inc in 1995 the Aztec Code symbol
is a matrix symbol with a distinctive bullseye finder pattern. Zint can
generate Compact Aztec Code (sometimes called Small Aztec Code) as well as
"fullrange" Aztec Code symbols and by default will automatically select symbol
type and size dependent on the length of the data to be encoded. Error
correction codewords will normally be generated to fill at least 23% of the
symbol. Two options are available to change this behaviour:
The size of the symbol can be specified using the ver= option or setting option_2 to a value between 1 and 36 according to the
following table. The symbols marked with an asterisk (*) in the table below are
"compact" symbols, meaning they have a smaller bullseye pattern at the centre
of the symbol.
Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

1

15 x 15*

19

79 x 79

2

19 x 19*

20

83 x 83

3

23 x 23*

21

87 x 87

4

27 x 27*

22

91 x 91

5

19 x 19

23

95 x 95

6

23 x 23

24

101 x 101

7

27 x 27

25

105 x 105

8

31 x 31

26

109 x 109

9

37 x 37

27

113 x 113

10

41 x 41

28

117 x 117

11

45 x 45

29

121 x 121

12

49 x 49

30

125 x 125

13

53 x 53

31

131 x 131

14

57 x 57

32

135 x 135

15

61 x 61

33

139 x 139

16

67 x 67

34

143 x 143

17

71 x 71

35

147 x 147

18

75 x 75

36

151 x 151

Note that in symbols which have a specified size the amount of error
correction is dependent on the length of the data input and Zint will allow
error correction capacities as low as 3 codewords.
Alternatively the amount of error correction data can be specified by use of
the mode= option or by setting option_1
to a value from the following table:
Mode

Error Correction Capacity

1

>10% + 3 codewords

2

>23% + 3 codewords

3

>36% + 3 codewords

4

>50% + 3 codewords

It is not possible to select both symbol size and error correction capacity
for the same symbol. If both options are selected then the error correction
capacity selection will be ignored.
Aztec Code supports ECI encoding and can encode up to a
maximum length of approximately 3823 numeric or 3067 alphabetic characters or
1914 bytes of data. A separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health
Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo49
check digit to the encoded data.
6.6.8 Aztec Runes
A truncated version of compact Aztec Code for encoding whole integers between
0 and 255. Includes ReedSolomon error correction. As defined in ISO/IEC 24778
Annex A.
6.6.9 Code One
A matrix symbology developed by Ted Williams in 1992 which encodes data in a
way similar to Data Matrix. Code One is able to encode the Latin1 character set
or GS1 data. There are two types of Code One symbol  variable height symbols
which are roughly square (versions A thought to H) and fixedheight versions
(version S and T). These can be selected by using vers= or setting option_2 as shown in the table below:
Input

Version

Size

Numeric Data Capacity

Alphanumeric Data Capacity

1

A

16 x 18

22

13

2

B

22 x 22

44

27

3

C

28 x 32

104

64

4

D

40 x 42

217

135

5

E

52 x 54

435

271

6

F

70 x 76

886

553

7

G

104 x 98

1755

1096

8

H

148 x 134

3550

2218

9

S

8X height

18

N/A

10

T

16X height

90

55

Version S symbols can only encode numeric data. The width of version S and
version T symbols is determined by the length of the input data.
6.6.10 Grid Matrix
By default Grid Matrix supports encoding in Latin1 and
Chinese characters within the GB 2312 standard set to be encoded in a
checkerboxard pattern. Input should be entered as a Unicode UTF8 stream with conversion
to GB 2312 being carried out automatically by Zint. The symbology also supports the ECI mechanism.
The size of the symbol and the error correction capacity can be specified. If you specify both of these
values then Zint will make a 'bestfit' attempt to satisfy both conditions. The
symbol size can be specified using the ver=
option or by setting option_2, and the error
correction capacity can be specified by using the secure= option or by setting option_1 according to the following tables:
Input

Size

1

18 x 18

2

30 x 30

3

42 x 42

4

54 x 54

5

66 x 66

6

78 x 78

7

90x 90

8

102 x 102

9

114 x 114

10

126 x 126

11

138 x 138

12

150 x 150

13

162 x 162

Mode

Error Correction Capacity

1

Approximately 10%

2

Approximately 20%

3

Approximately 30%

4

Approximately 40%

5

Approximately 50%

NonASCII data density may be maximized by using the fullmultibyte switch or by setting option_3 to ZINT_FULL_MULTIBYTE, but check that your barcode reader supports this before using.
6.6.11 DotCode
DotCode uses a grid of dots in a rectangular formation to encode characters up to a maximum
of approximately 450 characters (or 900 numeric digits). The symbology supports ECI encoding
and GS1 data encoding. By default Zint will produce a symbol which is approximately square,
however the width of the symbol can be adjusted by using the cols= option or by setting option_2.
Outputting DotCode to raster images (PNG, GIF, BMP, PCX) will require setting the scale of the
image to a larger value than the default (e.g. approx 10) for the dots to be plotted correctly.
Approximately 33% of the resulting symbol is comprised of error correction codewords.
6.6.12 Han Xin Code
Also known as Chinese Sensible Code, Han Xin is a symbology which is still under development, so it is recommended it should not yet be used for a production environment. The symbology is capable of encoding characters in the GB18030 character set (up to 4byte characters) and is also able to support the ECI mechanism. Han Xin does not support the encoding of GS1 data.
The size of the symbol can be specified using the ver= option or setting option_2 to a value between 1 and 84 according to the following table.
Input 
symbol Size 
Input 
symbol Size 
1  23 x 23  43  107 x 107 
2  25 x 25  44  109 x 109 
3  27 x 27  45  111 x 111 
4  29 x 29  46  113 x 113 
5  31 x 31  47  115 x 115 
6  33 x 33  48  117 x 117 
7  35 x 35  49  119 x 119 
8  37 x 37  50  121 x 121 
9  39 x 39  51  123 x 123 
10  41 x 41  52  125 x 125 
11  43 x 43  53  127 x 127 
12  45 x 45  54  129 x 129 
13  47 x 47  55  131 x 131 
14  49 x 49  56  133 x 133 
15  51 x 51  57  135 x 135 
16  53 x 53  58  137 x 137 
17  55 x 55  59  139 x 139 
18  57 x 57  60  141 x 141 
19  59 x 59  61  143 x 143 
20  61 x 61  62  145 x 145 
21  63 x 63  63  147 x 147 
22  65 x 65  64  149 x 149 
23  67 x 67  65  151 x 151 
24  69 x 69  66  153 x 153 
25  71 x 71  67  155 x 155 
26  73 x 73  68  157 x 157 
27  75 x 75  69  159 x 159 
28  77 x 77  70  161 x 161 
29  79 x 79  71  163 x 163 
30  81 x 81  72  165 x 165 
31  83 x 83  73  167 x 167 
32  85 x 85  74  169 x 169 
33  87 x 87  75  171 x 171 
34  89 x 89  76  173 x 173 
35  91 x 91  77  175 x 175 
36  93 x 93  78  177 x 177 
37  95 x 95  79  179 x 179 
38  97 x 97  80  181 x 181 
39  99 x 99  81  183 x 183 
40  101 x 101  82  185 x 185 
41  103 x 103  83  187 x 187 
42  105 x 105  84  189 x 189 
There are four levels of error correction capacity available for Han Xin Code which
can be set by using the mode= option or by setting option_1 to a value from the following table:
Mode 
Recovery Capacity 
1 
Approx 8% 
2 
Approx 15% 
3 
Approx 23% 
4 
Approx 30% 
It is not possible to select both symbol size and error correction capacity for the same symbol.
If both options are selected then the error correction capacity selection will be ignored.
NonASCII data density may be maximized by using the fullmultibyte switch or by setting option_3 to ZINT_FULL_MULTIBYTE, but check that your barcode reader supports this before using.
6.6.3 Ultracode
This symbology uses a grid of coloured elements to encode data. ECI and GS1 modes are supported. The amount of error correction can be set using the secure= option or by setting option_1 to a value as shown in the following table:
Value 
Level 
Amount of symbol holding error correction data 
1 
EC0 
0%  Error detection onl 
2 
EC1 
Approx 5% 
3 
EC2 
Approx 9%  Default value 
4 
EC3 
Approx 17% 
5 
EC4 
Approx 25% 
6 
EC5 
Approx 33% 
Zint does not currently implement data compression by default, but this can be initiated through the API by setting symbol>option_3 = ULTRA_COMPRESSION;
WARNING: Ultracode data compression is experimental and should not be used in a production environment.
6.7 Other BarcodeLike Markings
6.7.1. Facing Identification Mark (FIM)
Used by the United States Postal Service (USPS), the FIM symbology is used to
assist automated mail processing. There are only 4 valid symbols which can be
generated using the characters AD as shown in the table below.
Code Letter

Usage

A

Used for courtesy reply mail and metered reply mail with a preprinted
PostNet symbol.

B

Used for business reply mail without a preprinted zip code.

C

Used for business reply mail with a preprinted zip code.

D

Used for Information Based Indicia (IBI)
postage.

6.7.2 Flattermarken
Used for the recognition of page sequences in printshops, the Flattermarken
is not a true barcode symbol and requires precise knowledge of the position of
the mark on the page. The Flattermarken system can encode any length numeric
data and does not include a check digit.
6.7.3 DAFT Code
This is a method for creating 4state codes where the data encoding is
provided by an external program. Input data should consist of the letters 'D',
'A', 'F' and 'T' where these refer to descender, ascender, full (ascender and
descender) and tracker (neither ascender nor descender) respectively. All other
characters are ignored.