Zint Barcode Generator and Zint Barcode Studio User Manual

6. Types of symbology

6.1 One-Dimensional symbols

One-Dimensional symbols are what most people associate with the term barcode. They consist of a number of bars and a number of spaces of differing widths.

6.1.1 Code 11

Code 11

Developed by Intermec in 1977, Code 11 is similar to Code 2 of 5 Matrix and is primarily used in telecommunications. The symbol can encode any length string consisting of the digits 0-9 and the dash character (-). One modulo-11 check digit is calculated.

6.1.2 Code 2 of 5

ITF-14

Code 2 of 5 is a family of one-dimensional symbols, 8 of which are supported by Zint. Note that the names given to these standards alters from one source to another so you should take care to ensure that you have the right barcode type before using these standards.

6.1.2.1 Standard Code 2 of 5

Also known as Code 2 of 5 Matrix is a self-checking code used in industrial applications and photo development. Standard Code 2 of 5 will encode any length numeric input (digits 0-9).

6.1.2.2 IATA Code 2 of 5

Used for baggage handling in the air-transport industry by the International Air Transport Agency, this self-checking code will encode any length numeric input (digits 0-9) and does not include a check digit.

6.1.2.3 Industrial Code 2 of 5

Industrial Code 2 of 5 can encode any length numeric input (digits 0-9) and does not include a check digit.

6.1.2.4 Interleaved Code 2 of 5

This self-checking symbology encodes pairs of numbers, and so can only encode an even number of digits (0-9). If an odd number of digits is entered a leading zero is added by Zint. No check digit is added.

6.1.2.5 Code 2 of 5 Data Logic

Data Logic does not include a check digit and can encode any length numeric input (digits 0-9).

6.1.2.6 ITF-14

ITF-14, also known as UPC Shipping Container symbol or Case Code is based on Interleaved Code 2 of 5 and requires a 13 digit numeric input (digits 0-9). One modulo-10 check digit is added by Zint.

6.1.2.7 Deutsche Post Leitcode

Leitcode is based on Interleaved Code 2 of 5 and is used by Deutsche Post for mailing purposes. Leitcode requires a 13-digit numerical input and includes a check digit.

6.1.2.8 Deutsche Post Identcode

Identcode is based on Interleaved Code 2 of 5 and is used by Deutsche Post for mailing purposes. Identcode requires an 11-digit numerical input and includes a check digit.

6.1.3 Universal Product Code (EN 797)

6.1.3.1 UPC Version A

UPC-A

UPC-A is used in the United States for retail applications. The symbol requires an 11 digit article number. The check digit is calculated by Zint. In addition EAN-2 and EAN-5 add-on symbols can be added using the + character. For example, to draw a UPC-A symbol with the data 72527270270 with an EAN-5 add-on showing the data 12345 use the command:

zint --barcode=34 -d 72527270270+12345

or encode a data string with the + character included:

my_symbol->symbology = BARCODE_UPCA;

error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "72527270270+12345");

If your input data already includes the check digit symbology 35 can be used which takes a 12 digit input and validates the check digit before encoding.

6.1.3.2 UPC Version E

UPC-E is a zero-compressed version of UPC-A developed for smaller packages. The code requires a 6 digit article number (digits 0-9). The check digit is calculated by Zint. EAN-2 and EAN-5 add-on symbols can be added using the + character as with UPC-A. In addition Zint also supports Number System 1 encoding by entering a 7-digit article number stating with the digit 1. For example:

zint --barcode=37 -d 1123456

or

my_symbol->symbology = BARCODE_UPCE;

error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "1123456");

If your input data already includes the check digit symbology 38 can be used which takes a 7 or 8 digit input and validates the check digit before encoding.

6.1.4 European Article Number (EN 797)

6.1.4.1 EAN-2, EAN-5, EAN-8 and EAN-13

EAN-13

The EAN system is used in retail across Europe and includes standards for EAN-2 and EAN-5 add-on codes, EAN-8 and EAN-13 which encode 2, 5, 7 or 12 digit numbers respectively. Zint will decide which symbology to use depending on the length of the input data. In addition EAN-2 and EAN-5 add-on symbols can be added using the + symbol as with UPC symbols. For example:

zint --barcode=13 -d 54321

will encode a stand-alone EAN-5, whereas

zint --barcode=13 -d 7432365+54321

will encode an EAN-8 symbol with an EAN-5 add-on. As before these results can be achieved using the API:

my_symbol->symbology = BARCODE_EANX;

error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "54321");

error = ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "7432365+54321");

All of the EAN symbols include check digits which is added by Zint.

If you are encoding an EAN-8 or EAN-13 symbol and your data already includes the check digit then you can use symbology 14 which takes an 8 or 13 digit input and validates the check digit before encoding.

6.1.4.2 SBN, ISBN and ISBN-13

EAN-13 symbols (also known as boxokland EAN-13) can also be produced from 9-digit SBN, 10-digit ISBN or 13-digit ISBN-13 data. The relevant check digit needs to be present in the input data and will be verified before the symbol is generated. In addition EAN-2 and EAN-5 add-on symbols can be added using the + symbol as with UPC symbols.

6.1.5 Plessey

Plessey Code

Also known as Plessey Code, this symbology was developed by the Plessey Company Ltd. in the UK. The symbol can encode any length data consisting of digits (0-9) or letters AF and includes a CRC check digit.

6.1.6 MSI Plessey

Based on Plessey and developed by MSE Data Corporation, MSI Plessey is available with a range of check digit options available by setting option_2 or by using the --ver= switch. Any length numeric (digits 0-9) input can be encoded. The table below shows the options available:

Value of option_2

Check Digits

0

None

1

Modulo-10

2

Modulo-10 & Modulo-10

3

Modulo-11

4

Modulo-11 & Modulo-10

6.1.7 Telepen

6.1.7.1 Telepen Alpha

Telepen

Telepen Alpha was developed by SB Electronic Systems Limited and can encode any length of ASCII text input. Telepen includes a modulo-127 check digit.

6.1.7.2 Telepen Numeric

Telepen Numeric allows compression of numeric data into a Telepen symbol. Data can consist of pairs of numbers or pairs consisting of a numerical digit followed an X character. For example: 466333 and 466X33 are valid codes whereas 46X333 is not (the digit pair "X3" is not valid). Telepen Numeric includes a modulo-127 check digit which is added by Zint.

6.1.8 Code 39

6.1.8.1 Standard Code 39 (ISO 16388)

Code 39

Standard Code 39 was developed in 1974 by Intermec. Input data can be of any length and can include the characters 0-9, A-Z, dash (-), full stop (.), space, asterisk (*), dollar ($), slash (/), plus (+) and percent (%). The standard does not require a check digit but a modulo-43 check digit can be added if required by setting option_2 = 1 or using --ver=1.

6.1.8.2 Extended Code 39

Also known as Code 39e and Code39+, this symbology expands on Standard Code 39 to provide support to the full ASCII character set. The standard does not require a check digit but a modulo-43 check digit can be added if required by setting option_2 = 1 or using --ver=1.

6.1.8.3 Code 93

A variation of Extended Code 39, Code 93 also supports full ASCII text. Two check digits are added by Zint.

6.1.8.4 PZN

PZN is a Code 39 based symbology used by the pharmaceutical industry in Germany. PZN encodes a 6 digit number to which Zint will add a modulo-10 check digit.

6.1.8.5 LOGMARS

LOGMARS (Logistics Applications of Automated Marking and Reading symbols) is a variation of the Code 39 symbology used by the US Department of Defence. LOGMARS encodes the same character set as Standard Code 39 and adds a modulo-43 check digit.

6.1.8.6 Code 32

A variation of Code 39 used by the Italian Ministry of Health ("Ministero della Sanità") for encoding identifiers on pharmaceutical products. for encoding identifiers on pharmaceutical products. This symbology requires a numeric input up to 8 digits in length. A check digit is added by Zint.

6.1.8.7 HIBC Code 39

This option adds a leading '+' character and a trailing modulo-49 check digit to a standard Code 39 symbol as required by the Health Industry Barcode standards.

6.1.9 Codabar (EN 798)

Codabar

Also known as NW-7, Monarch, ABC Codabar, USD-4, Ames Code and Code 27, this symbology was developed in 1972 by Monarch Marketing Systems for retail purposes. The American Blood Commission adopted Codabar in 1977 as the standard symbology for blood identification. Codabar can encode any length string starting and ending with the letters A-D and containing between these letters the numbers 0-9, dash (-), dollar ($), colon (:), slash (/), full stop (.) or plus (+). No check digit is generated.

6.1.10 Pharmacode

Pharmacode

Developed by Laetus, Pharmacode is used for the identification of pharmaceuticals. The symbology is able to encode whole numbers between 3 and 131070.

6.1.11 Code 128

6.1.11.1 Standard Code 128 (ISO 15417)

Code 128

One of the most ubiquitous one-dimensional barcode symbologies, Code 128 was developed in 1981 by Computer Identics. This symbology supports full ASCII text and uses a three-mode system to compress the data into a smaller symbol. Zint automatically switches between modes and adds a modulo-103 check digit. Code 128 is the default barcode symbology used by Zint. In addition Zint supports the encoding of Latin-1 (non-English) characters in Code 128 symbols [1]. The Latin-1 character set is shown in Appendix A.

6.1.11.2 Code 128 Subset B

It is sometimes advantageous to stop Code 128 from using subset mode C which compresses numerical data. The BARCODE_CODE128B option (symbology 60) suppresses mode C in favour of mode B.

6.1.11.3 GS1-128

A variation of Code 128 also known as UCC/EAN-128, this symbology is defined by the GS1 General Specification. Application Identifiers (AIs) should be entered using [square bracket] notation. These will be converted to (round brackets) for the human readable text. This will allow round brackets to be used in the data strings to be encoded. Fixed length data should be entered at the appropriate length for correct encoding (see Appendix C). GS1-128 does not support extended ASCII characters. Check digits for GTIN data (AI 01) are not generated and need to be included in the input data. The following is an example of a valid GS1-128 input:

zint --barcode=16 -d "[01]98898765432106[3202]012345[15]991231"

6.1.11.4 EAN-14

A shorter version of GS1-128 which encodes GTIN data only. A 13 digit number is required. The GTIN check digit and AI (01) are added by Zint.

6.1.11.5 NVE-18

A variation of Code 128 the "Nummer der Versandeinheit" standard includes boxth modulo-10 and modulo-103 check digits. NVE-18 requires a 17 digit numerical input and check digits are added by Zint.

6.1.11.6 HIBC Code 128

This option adds a leading '+' character and a trailing modulo-49 check digit to a standard Code 128 symbol as required by the Health Industry Barcode standards.

6.1.12 GS1 DataBar (ISO 24724)

GS1 DataBar

Also known as RSS (Reduced Spaced symbology) these symbols are due to replace GS1-128 symbols in accordance with the GS1 General Specification. If a GS1 DataBar symbol is to be printed with a 2D component as specified in ISO 24723 set

option_1 = 2
or use the option
--mode=2
at the command prompt. See section 6.3 of this manual to find out how to generate DataBar symbols with 2D components.

6.1.12.1 DataBar-14 and DataBar-14 Truncated

Also known as RSS-14 this standard encodes a 13 digit item code. A check digit and application identifier of (01) are added by Zint. To produce a truncated symbol set the symbol height to a value between 32 and 13. Normal DataBar-14 symbols should have a height of 33 or greater.

6.1.12.2 DataBar Limited

Also known as RSS Limited this standard encodes a 13 digit item code and can be used in the same way as DataBar-14 aboxve. DataBar Limited, however, is limited to data starting with digits 0 and 1 (i.e. numbers in the range 0 to 1999999999999). As with DataBar-14 a check digit and application identifier of (01) are added by Zint.

6.1.12.3 DataBar Expanded

Also known as RSS Expanded this is a variable length symbology capable of encoding data from a number of AIs in a single symbol. AIs should be encased in [square brackets] in the input data. This will be converted to (rounded brackets) before it is included in the human readable text attached to the symbol. This method allows the inclusion of rounded brackets in the data to be encoded. GTIN data (AI 01) should also include the check digit data as this is not calculated by Zint when this

symbology is encoded. Fixed length data should be entered at the appropriate length for correct encoding (see Appendix C ). The following is an example of a valid DataBar Expanded input

zint --barcode=31 -d "[01]98898765432106[3202]012345[15]991231"

6.1.13 Korea Post Barcode

Korea Post Barcode

The Korean Postal Barcode is used to encode a six-digit number and includes one check digit.

6.1.14 Channel Code

Channel Code

A highly compressed symbol for numeric data. The number of channels in the symbol can be between 3 and 8 and this can be specified by setting the value of option_2. It can also be determined by the length of the input data e.g. a three character input string generates a 4 channel code by default. The maximum values permitted depend on the number of channels used as shown in the table below:

Channels

Minimum Value

Maximum Value

3

00

26

4

000

292

5

0000

3493

6

00000

44072

7

000000

576688

8

0000000

7742862

Note that 7 and 8 channel codes require a processor intensive algorithm to generate and so response times when generating these codes will be relatively slow.

6.2 Stacked symbologies

6.2.1 Basic symbol Stacking

An early innovation to get more information into a symbol, used primarily in the vehicle industry, is to simply stack one-dimensional codes on top of each other. This can be achieved at the command prompt by giving more than one set of input data. For example

zint -d 'This' -d 'That'

will draw two Code 128 symbols, one on top of the other. The same result can be achieved using the API by executing the ZBarcode_Encode() function more than once on a symbol. For example:

my_symbol->symbology = BARCODE_CODE128;

error = ZBarcode_Encode(my_symbol, "This");

error = ZBarcode_Encode(my_symbol, "That");

error = ZBarcode_Print(my_symbol);

The example below shows 5 EAN-13 symbols stacked in this way.

more sophisticated method is to use some type of line indexing which indicates to the barcode reader which order the symbols should be read. This is demonstrated by the symbologies below.

6.2.2 Codablock-F

This is a stacked symbology based on Code 128 which can encode ASCII code set data up to a maximum length of 2725 characters. The width of the Codablock-F symbol can be set using the --cols= option at the command line or option_2. Alternatively the height (number of rows) can be set using the --rows= option at the command line or by setting option_1. Zint does not support encoding of GS1 data in Codablock-F symbols.

6.2.3 Code 16k (EN 12323)

Code 16K

Code 16k uses a Code 128 based system which can stack up to 16 rows in a block. This gives a maximum data capacity of 77 characters or 154 numerical digits and includes two modulo-107 check digits. Code 16k also supports extended ASCII character encoding in the same manner as Code 128.

6.2.4 PDF417 (ISO 15438)

PDF417

Heavily used in the parcel industry, the PDF417 symbology can encode a vast amount of data into a small space. Zint supports encoding up to the ISO standard maximum symbol size of 925 codewords which (at error correction level 0) allows a maximum data size of 1850 text characters, or 2710 digits. The width of the generated PDF417 symbol can be specified at the command line using the --cols switch followed by a number between 1 and 30, and the amount of check digit information can be specified by using the --security switch followed by a number between 0 and 8 where the number of codewords used for check information is determined by 2(value + 1). If using the API these values are assigned to option_2 and option_1 respectively. The default level of check information is determined by the amount of data being encoded.This symbology uses Latin-1 character encoding by default but also supports the ECI encoding mechanism. A separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo-49 check digit to the encoded data.

6.2.5 Compact PDF417

Also known as truncated PDF417. Options are the same as for PDF417 aboxve.

6.2.6 MicroPDF417 (ISO 24728)

MicroPDF417

A variation of the PDF417 standard, MicroPDF417 is intended for applications where symbol size needs to be kept to a minimum. 34 predefined symbol sizes are available with 1 - 4 columns and 4 - 44 rows. The maximum size MicroPDF417 symbol can hold 250 alphanumeric characters or 366 digits. The amount of error correction used is dependent on symbol size. The number of columns used can be determined using the --cols switch or option_2 as with PDF417. This symbology uses Latin-1 character encoding by default but also supports the ECI encoding mechanism. A separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo-49 check digit to the encoded data.

6.2.7 GS1 DataBar-14 Stacked (ISO 24724)

GS1 DataBar-14 Stacked

A stacked variation of the GS1 DataBar-14 symbol requiring the same input (see section 6.1.12.1). The height of this symbol is fixed. The data is encoded in two rows of bars with a central finder pattern. This symbol can be generated with a two-dimensional component to make a composite symbol.

6.2.8 GS1 DataBar-14 Stacked Omnidirectional (ISO 24724)

GS1 DataBar-14 Stacked Omnidirectional

Another variation of the GS1 DataBar-14 symbol requiring the same input (see section 6.1.12.1). The data is encoded in two rows of bars with a central finder pattern. This symbol can be generated with a two-dimensional component to make a composite symbol.

6.2.9 GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked (ISO 24724)

GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked

A stacked variation of the GS1 DataBar Expanded symbol for smaller packages. Input is the same as for GS1 DataBar Expanded (see section 6.1.12.3). In addition the width of the symbol can be altered using the --cols switch or option_2. In this case the number of columns relates to the number of character pairs on each row of the symbol. This symbol can be generated with a two- dimensional component to make a composite symbol. For symbols with a 2D component the number of columns must be at least 2.

6.2.10 Code 49

Code 49

Developed in 1987 at Intermec, Code 49 is a cross between UPC and Code 39. It it one of the earliest stacked symbologies and influenced the design of Code 16K a few years later. It supports full 7-bit ASCII input up to a maximum of 49 characters or 81 numeric digits. GS1 data encoding is also supported.

6.3 Composite symbols (ISO 24723)

Composite symbols employ a mixture of components to give more comprehensive information aboxut a product. The permissible contents of a composite symbol is determined by the terms of the GS1 General Specification. Composite symbols consist of a linear component which can be an EAN, UPC, GS1-128 or GS1 DataBar symbol, a 2D component which is based on PDF417 or MicroPDF417, and a separator pattern. The type of linear component to be used is determined using the -b or --barcode= switch or by adjusting symbol->symbology as with other encoding methods. Valid values are shown below.

Numeric Value

Name

symbology

130

BARCODE_EANX_CC

Composite symbol with EAN linear component

131

BARCODE_EAN128_CC

Composite symbol with GS1-128 linear component

132

BARCODE_RSS14_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar-14 linear component

133

BARCODE_RSS_LTD_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar Limited component

134

BARCODE_RSS_EXP_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar Extended component

135

BARCODE_UPCA_CC

Composite symbol with UPC A linear component

136

BARCODE_UPCE_CC

Composite symbol with UPC E linear component

137

BARCODE_RSS14STACK_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar-14 Stacked component

138

BARCODE_RSS14_OMNI_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar-14 Stacked Omnidirectional component

139

BARCODE_RSS_EXPSTACK_CC

Composite symbol with GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked component

The data to be encoded in the linear component of a composite symbol should be entered into a primary string with the data for the 2D component being entered in the normal way. To do this at the command prompt use the --primary= command. For example:

zint -b 130 --mode=1 --primary=331234567890 -d "[99]1234-abcd"

This creates an EAN-13 linear component with the data "331234567890" and a 2D CC-A (see below) component with the data "(99)1234-abcd". The same results can be achieved using the API as shown below:

my_symbol->symbology = 130;

my_symbol->option_1 = 1;

strcpy(my_symbol->primary, "331234567890");

ZBarcode_Encode_and_Print(my_symbol, "[99]1234-abcd");

EAN-2 and EAN-5 add-on data can be used with EAN and UPC symbols using the + symbol as described in section 6.1.3 and 5.1.4.

The 2D component of a composite symbol can use one of three systems: CC-A, CC-B and CC-C as described below. The 2D component type can be selected automatically by Zint dependant on the length of the input string. Alternatively the three methods can be accessed using the --mode= prompt followed by 1, 2 or 3 for CC-A, CC-B or CC-C respectively, or by using the option_1 variable as shown aboxve.

6.3.1 CC-A

EAN-13 with CC-A composite component

This system uses a variation of MicroPDF417 which optimised to fit into a small space. The size of the 2D component and the amount of error correction is determined by the amount of data to be encoded and the type of linear component which is being used. CC-A can encode up to 56 numeric digits or an alphanumeric string of shorter length. To select CC-A use --mode=1.

6.3.2 CC-B

This system uses MicroPDF417 to encode the 2D component. The size of the 2D component and the amount of error correction is determined by the amount of data to be encoded and the type of linear component which is being used. CC-B can encode up to 338 numeric digits or an alphanumeric string of shorter length. To select CC-B use --mode=2.

6.3.3 CC-C

This system uses PDF417 and can only be used in conjunction with a GS1-128 linear component. CC-C can encode up to 2361 numeric digits or an alphanumeric string of shorter length. To select CC-C use --mode=3.

6.4 Two-Track symbols

6.4.1 Two-Track Pharmacode

Pharmacode

Developed by Laetus, Pharmacode Two-Track is an alternative system to Pharmacode One-Track used for the identification of pharmaceuticals. The symbology is able to encode whole numbers between 4 and 64570080.

6.4.2 PostNet

PostNet

Used by the United States Postal Service until 2009, the PostNet barcode was used for encoding zip-codes on mail items. PostNet uses numerical input data and includes a modulo-10 check digit. While Zint will encode PostNet symbols of any length, standard lengths as used by USPS were PostNet6 (5 digits ZIP input), PostNet10 (5 digit ZIP + 4 digit user data) and PostNet12 (5 digit ZIP + 6 digit user data).

6.4.3 PLANET

PLANET

Used by the United States Postal Service until 2009, the PLANET (Postal Alpha Numeric Encoding Technique) barcode was used for encoding routing data on mail items. Planet uses numerical input data and includes a modulo-10 check digit. While Zint will encode PLANET symbols of any length, standard lengths used by USPS were Planet12 (11 digit input) and Planet14 (13 digit input).

6.5 4-State Postal Codes

6.5.1 Australia Post 4-State symbols

6.5.1.1 Customer Barcodes

Australia Post symbol

Australia Post Standard Customer Barcode, Customer Barcode 2 and Customer Barcode 3 are 37-bar, 52-bar and 67-bar specifications respectively, developed by Australia Post for printing Delivery Point ID (DPID) and customer information on mail items. Valid data characters are 0-9, A-Z, a-z, space and hash (#). A Format Control Code (FCC) is added by Zint and should not be included in the input data. Reed-Solomon error correction data is generated by Zint. Encoding behaviour is determined by the length of the input data according to the formula shown in the following table:

Input Length

Required Input Format

symbol Length

FCC

Encoding Table

8

99999999

37-bar

11

None

13

99999999AAAAA

52-bar

59

C

16

9999999999999999

52-bar

59

N

18

99999999AAAAAAAAAA

67-bar

62

C

23

99999999999999999999999

67-bar

62

N

6.5.1.2 Reply Paid Barcode

A Reply Paid version of the Australia Post 4-State Barcode (FCC 45) which requires an 8-digit DPID input.

6.5.1.3 Routing Barcode

A Routing version of the Australia Post 4-State Barcode (FCC 87) which requires an 8-digit DPID input.

6.5.1.4 Redirect Barcode

A Redirection version of the Australia Post 4-State Barcode (FCC 92) which requires an 8-digit DPID input.

6.5.2 Dutch Post KIX Code

Dutch Post KIX Code

This symbology is used by Royal Dutch TPG Post (Netherlands) for Postal code and automatic mail sorting. Data input can consist of numbers 0-9 and letters A-Z and needs to be 11 characters in length. No check digit is included.

6.5.3 Royal Mail 4-State Country Code (RM4SCC)

Royal Mail 4-State Code

The RM4SCC standard is used by the Royal Mail in the UK to encode postcode and customer data on mail items. Data input can consist of numbers 0-9 and letters A-Z and usually includes delivery postcode followed by house number. For example "W1J0TR01" for 1 Picadilly Circus in London. Check digit data is generated by Zint.

6.5.4 USPS OneCode

USPS OneCode

Also known as the Intelligent Mail Barcode and used in the US by the United States Postal Service (USPS), the OneCode system replaced the PostNet and PLANET symbologies in 2009. OneCode is a fixed length (65-bar) symbol which combines routing and customer information in a single symbol. Input data consists of a 20 digit tracking code, followed by a dash (-), followed by a delivery point zip-code which can be 0, 5, 9 or 11 digits in length. For example all of the following inputs are valid data entries:

"01234567094987654321"

"01234567094987654321-01234"

"01234567094987654321-012345678"

"01234567094987654321-01234567891"

6.5.5 Japanese Postal Code

Japanese Postal Code

Used for address data on mail items for Japan Post. Accepted values are 0-9, A-Z and Dash (-). A modulo 19 check digit is added by Zint.

6.6 Two-Dimensional symbols

6.6.1 Data Matrix ECC200 (ISO 16022)

Data Matrix ECC200

Also known as Semacode this symbology was developed in 1989 by Acuity CiMatrix in partnership with the US DoD and NASA. The symbol can encode a large amount of data in a small area. characters in the Latin-1 set by default but also supports encoding using other character sets using the ECI mechanism. It can also encode GS1 data. The size of the generated symbol can also be adjusted using the --vers= option or by setting option_2 as shown in the table below. A separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo-49 check digit to the encoded data. Note that only ECC200 encoding is supported, the older standards have now been removed from Zint.

Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

1

10 x 10

16

64 x 64

2

12 x 12

17

72 x 72

3

14 x 14

18

80 x 80

4

16 x 16

19

88 x 88

5

18 x 18

20

96 x 96

6

20 x 20

21

104 x 104

7

22 x 22

22

120 x 120

8

24 x 24

23

132 x 132

9

26 x 26

24

144 x 144

10

32 x 32

25

8 x 18

11

36 x 36

26

8 x 32

12

40 x 40

27

12 x 26

13

44 x 44

28

12 x 36

14

48 x 48

29

16 x 36

15

52 x 52

30

16 x 48

To force Zint only to use square symbols (versions 1-24) at the command line use the option --square and when using the API set the value option_3 = DM_SQUARE.

Data Matrix Rectangular Extension (DMRE) may be generated with the following values as before.

Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

31

8 x 48

35

24 x 48

32

8 x 64

36

24 x 64

33

12 x 64

37

26 x 48

34

16 x 64

38

26 x 64

DMRE symbol sizes may be activated in automatic mode using the option --dmre or by the API option_3 = DM_DMRE

6.6.2 QR Code (ISO 18004)

QR Code

Also known as Quick Response Code this symbology was developed by Denso. Four levels of error correction are available using the --secure= option or setting option_1 as shown in the following table.

Input

ECC Level

Error Correction Capacity

Recovery Capacity

1

L (default)

Approx 20% of symbol

Approx 7%

2

M

Approx 37% of symbol

Approx 15%

3

Q

Approx 55% of symbol

Approx 25%

4

H

Approx 65% of symbol

Approx 30%

The size of the symbol can be set by using the --vers= option or by setting option_2 to the QR Code version required (1-40). The size of symbol generated is shown in the table below.

Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

1

21 x 21

21

101 x 101

2

25 x 25

22

105 x 105

3

29 x 29

23

109 x 109

4

33 x 33

24

113 x 113

5

37 x 37

25

117 x 117

6

41 x 41

26

121 x 121

7

45 x 45

27

125 x 125

8

49 x 49

28

129 x 129

9

53 x 53

29

133 x 133

10

57 x 57

30

137 x 137

11

61 x 61

31

141 x 141

12

65 x 65

32

145 x 145

13

69 x 69

33

149 x 149

14

73 x 73

34

153 x 153

15

77 x 77

35

157 x 157

16

81 x 81

36

161 x 161

17

85 x 85

37

165 x 165

18

89 x 89

38

169 x 169

19

93 x 93

39

173 x 173

20

97 x 97

40

177 x 177

The maximum capacity of a (version 40) QR Code symbol is 7089 numeric digits, 4296 alphanumeric characters or 2953 bytes of data. QR Code symbols can also be used to encode GS1 data. QR Code symbols can by default encode characters in the Latin-1 set and Kanji characters which are members of the Shift-JIS encoding scheme. In addition QR Code supports using other character sets using the ECI mechanism. Input should usually be entered as Unicode (UTF-8) with conversion to Shift-JIS being carried out by Zint. A separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo-49 check digit to the encoded data.

6.6.3 Micro QR Code (ISO 18004)

Micro Qr Code

A miniature version of the QR Code symbol for short messages. ECC levels can be selected as for QR Code (aboxve). QR Code symbols can encode characters in the Latin-1 set and Kanji characters which are members of the Shift-JIS encoding scheme. Input should be entered as a UTF-8 stream with conversion to Shift-JIS being carried out automatically by Zint. A preferred symbol size can be selected by using the --vers= option or by setting option_2 although the actual version used by Zint may be different if required by the input data. The table below shows the possible sizes:

Input

Version

symbol Size

1

M1

11 x 11

2

M2

13 x 13

3

M3

15 x 15

4

M4

17 x 17

6.6.4 UPNQR - Univerzalni Plačilni Nalog QR

A variation of QR code used Združenje Bank Slovenije (Bank Association of Slovenia). The size, error correction level and ECI are set by Zint and do not need to be specified. UPNQR is unusual in that it uses ISO-8859-2 formatted data. Zint will accept UTF-8 data and convert it to ISO-8859-2, or if your data is already ISO-8859-2 formatted use the --binary switch or if using the API set

my_symbol->input_mode=DATA_MODE;

The following example creates a symbol from data saved in an ISO-8859-2 file:

zint -o UPNQR.png -b 143 --border=5 --scale=3 --binary -i ./upn.txt

6.6.5 Maxicode (ISO 16023)

Maxicode

Developed by UPS the Maxicode symbology employs a grid of hexagons surrounding a 'bulls-eye' finder pattern. This symbology is designed for the identification of parcels. Maxicode symbols can be encoded in one of five modes. In modes 2 and 3 Maxicode symbols are composed of two parts named the primary and secondary messages. The primary message consists of a structured data field which includes various data aboxut the package being sent and the secondary message usually consists of address data in a data structure. The format of the primary message required by Zint is given in the following table:

Characters

Meaning

1-9

Postcode data which can consist of up to 9 digits (for mode 2) or up to 6 alphanumeric characters (for mode 3). Remaining unused characters should be filled with the SPACE character (ASCII 32).

10-12

Three digit country code according to ISO 3166 (see Appendix B).

13-15

Three digit service code. This depends on your parcel courier.

The primary message can be set at the command prompt using the

--primary=
switch. The secondary message uses the normal data entry method. For example:

zint -o test.eps -b 57 --primary='999999999840012' -d 'Secondary Message Here'

When using the API the primary message must be placed in the symbol->primary string. The secondary is entered in the same way as described in section 5.2. When either of these modes is selected Zint will analyse the primary message and select either mode 2 or mode 3 as appropriate.

Modes 4 to 6 can be accessed using the --mode= switch or by setting option_1. Modes 4 to 6 do not require a primary message. For example:

zint -o test.eps -b 57 --mode=4 -d 'A MaxiCode Message in Mode 4'

Mode 6 is reserved for the maintenance of scanner hardware and should not be used to encode user data.

This symbology uses Latin-1 character encoding by default but also supports the ECI encoding mechanism. The maximum length of text which can be placed in a Maxicode symbol depends on the type of characters used in the text.

Example maximum data lengths are given in the table below:

Mode

Maximum Data Length for Capital Letters

Maximum Data Length for Numeric Digits

Number of Error Correction Codewords

2 (secondary only)

84

126

50

3 (secondary only)

84

126

50

4

93

135

50

5

77

110

66

6

93

135

50

6.6.6 Aztec Code (ISO 24778)

Aztec Code

Invented by Andrew Longacre at Welch Allyn Inc in 1995 the Aztec Code symbol is a matrix symbol with a distinctive bulls-eye finder pattern. Zint can generate Compact Aztec Code (sometimes called Small Aztec Code) as well as "full-range" Aztec Code symbols and by default will automatically select symbol type and size dependent on the length of the data to be encoded. Error correction codewords will normally be generated to fill at least 23% of the symbol. Two options are available to change this behaviour:

The size of the symbol can be specified using the --ver= option or setting option_2 to a value between 1 and 36 according to the following table. The symbols marked with an asterisk (*) in the table below are "compact" symbols, meaning they have a smaller bulls-eye pattern at the centre of the symbol.

Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

1

15 x 15*

19

79 x 79

2

19 x 19*

20

83 x 83

3

23 x 23*

21

87 x 87

4

27 x 27*

22

91 x 91

5

19 x 19

23

95 x 95

6

23 x 23

24

101 x 101

7

27 x 27

25

105 x 105

8

31 x 31

26

109 x 109

9

37 x 37

27

113 x 113

10

41 x 41

28

117 x 117

11

45 x 45

29

121 x 121

12

49 x 49

30

125 x 125

13

53 x 53

31

131 x 131

14

57 x 57

32

135 x 135

15

61 x 61

33

139 x 139

16

67 x 67

34

143 x 143

17

71 x 71

35

147 x 147

18

75 x 75

36

151 x 151

Note that in symbols which have a specified size the amount of error correction is dependent on the length of the data input and Zint will allow error correction capacities as low as 3 codewords.

Alternatively the amount of error correction data can be specified by use of the --mode= option or by setting option_1 to a value from the following table:

Mode

Error Correction Capacity

1

>10% + 3 codewords

2

>23% + 3 codewords

3

>36% + 3 codewords

4

>50% + 3 codewords

It is not possible to select boxth symbol size and error correction capacity for the same symbol. If boxth options are selected then the error correction capacity selection will be ignored.

Aztec Code supports ECI encoding and can encode up to a maximum length of approximately 3823 numeric or 3067 alphabetic characters or 1914 bytes of data. A separate symbology ID can be used to encode Health Industry Barcode (HIBC) data which adds a leading '+' character and a modulo-49 check digit to the encoded data.

6.6.7 Aztec Runes

Aztec Runes

A truncated version of compact Aztec Code for encoding whole integers between 0 and 255. Includes Reed-Solomon error correction. As defined in ISO/IEC 24778 Annex A.

6.6.8 Code One

Code One

A matrix symbology developed by Ted Williams in 1992 which encodes data in a way similar to Data Matrix ECC200. Code One is able to encode the Latin-1 character set or GS1 data. There are two types of Code One symbol - variable height symbols which are roughly square (versions A thought to H) and fixed-height versions (version S and T). These can be selected by using --vers= or setting option_2 as shown in the table below:

Input

Version

Size

Numeric Data Capacity

Alphanumeric Data Capacity

1

A

16 x 18

22

13

2

B

22 x 22

44

27

3

C

28 x 32

104

64

4

D

40 x 42

217

135

5

E

52 x 54

435

271

6

F

70 x 76

886

553

7

G

104 x 98

1755

1096

8

H

148 x 134

3550

2218

9

S

8X height

18

N/A

10

T

16X height

90

55

Version S symbols can only encode numeric data. The width of version S and version T symbols is determined by the length of the input data.

6.6.9 Grid Matrix

Grid Matrix

By default Grid Matrix supports encoding in Latin-1 and Chinese characters within the GB 2312 standard set to be encoded in a checkerboxard pattern. Input should be entered as a Unicode UTF-8 stream with conversion to GB 2312 being carried out automatically by Zint. The symbology also supports the ECI mechanism. The size of the symbol and the error correction capacity can be specified. If you specify boxth of these values then Zint will make a 'best-fit' attempt to satisfy boxth conditions. The symbol size can be specified using the --ver= option or by setting option_2, and the error correction capacity can be specified by using the --secure= option or by setting option_1 according to the following tables:

Input

Size

1

18 x 18

2

30 x 30

3

42 x 42

4

54 x 54

5

66 x 66

6

78 x 78

7

90x 90

8

102 x 102

9

114 x 114

10

126 x 126

11

138 x 138

12

150 x 150

13

162 x 162

 

Mode

Error Correction Capacity

1

Approximately 10%

2

Approximately 20%

3

Approximately 30%

4

Approximately 40%

5

Approximately 50%

6.6.10 DotCode

DotCode uses a grid of dots in a rectangular formation to encode characters up to a maximum of approximately 450 characters (or 900 numeric digits). The symbology supports ECI encoding and GS-1 data encoding. By default Zint will produce a symbol which is approximately square, however the width of the symbol can be adjusted by using the --cols= option or by setting option_2. Outputting DotCode to raster images (PNG, GIF, BMP, PCX) will require setting the scale of the image to a larger value than the default (e.g. approx 10) for the dots to be plotted correctly. Approximately 33% of the resulting symbol is comprised of error correction codewords.

6.6.11 Han Xin Code

Also known as Chinese Sensible Code, Han Xin is a symbology which is still under development, so it is recommended it should not yet be used for a production environment. The symbology is capable of encoding characters in the GB18030 character set (up to 4-byte characters) and is also able to support the ECI mechanism. Han Xin does not support the encoding of GS-1 data. The size of the symbol can be specified using the --ver= option or setting option_2 to a value between 1 and 84 according to the following table.

Input

symbol Size

Input

symbol Size

123 x 2343107 x 107
225 x 2544109 x 109
327 x 2745111 x 111
429 x 2946113 x 113
531 x 3147115 x 115
633 x 3348117 x 117
735 x 3549119 x 119
837 x 3750121 x 121
939 x 3951123 x 123
1041 x 4152125 x 125
1143 x 4353127 x 127
1245 x 4554129 x 129
1347 x 4755131 x 131
1449 x 4956133 x 133
1551 x 5157135 x 135
1653 x 5358137 x 137
1755 x 5559139 x 139
1857 x 5760141 x 141
1959 x 5961143 x 143
2061 x 6162145 x 145
2163 x 6363147 x 147
2265 x 6564149 x 149
2367 x 6765151 x 151
2469 x 6966153 x 153
2571 x 7167155 x 155
2673 x 7368157 x 157
2775 x 7569159 x 159
2877 x 7770161 x 161
2979 x 7971163 x 163
3081 x 8172165 x 165
3183 x 8373167 x 167
3285 x 8574169 x 169
3387 x 8775171 x 171
3489 x 8976173 x 173
3591 x 9177175 x 175
3693 x 9378177 x 177
3795 x 9579179 x 179
3897 x 9780181 x 181
3999 x 9981183 x 183
40101 x 10182185 x 185
41103 x 10383187 x 187
42105 x 10584189 x 189

There are four levels of error correction capacity available for Han Xin Code which can be set by using the --mode= option or by setting option_1 to a value from the following table:

Mode Recovery Capacity
1 Approx 8%
2 Approx 15%
3 Approx 23%
4 Approx 30%

It is not possible to select boxth symbol size and error correction capacity for the same symbol. If boxth options are selected then the error correction capacity selection will be ignored.

6.7 Other Barcode-Like Markings

6.7.1. Facing Identification Mark (FIM)

FIM

Used by the United States Postal Service (USPS), the FIM symbology is used to assist automated mail processing. There are only 4 valid symbols which can be generated using the characters A-D as shown in the table below.

Code Letter

Usage

A

Used for courtesy reply mail and metered reply mail with a pre-printed PostNet symbol.

B

Used for business reply mail without a pre-printed zip code.

C

Used for business reply mail with a pre-printed zip code.

D

Used for Information Based Indicia (IBI) postage.

6.7.2 Flattermarken

Flattermarken

Used for the recognition of page sequences in print-shops, the Flattermarken is not a true barcode symbol and requires precise knowledge of the position of the mark on the page. The Flattermarken system can encode any length numeric data and does not include a check digit.

6.7.3 DAFT Code

This is a method for creating 4-state codes where the data encoding is provided by an external program. Input data should consist of the letters 'D', 'A', 'F' and 'T' where these refer to descender, ascender, full (ascender and descender) and tracker (neither ascender nor descender) respectively. All other characters are ignored.